3690. Weight Optimization of Environmental Control System of Corporate Jets

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Title3690. Weight Optimization of Environmental Control System of Corporate Jets
Publication TypeConference Paper
Paper Number3690
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsMitry, Ragaa
Conference76th Annual Conference, Montreal, Canada
Conference LocationMontreal, Canada
PublisherSociety of Allied Weight Engineers, Inc.
Date Published05/2017

The environmental control system (ECS) is an essential system in the aircraft; it provides air supply, thermal, humidity, ventilation, and cabin pressurization for the crew and passengers. It is also used for engine anti-ice, main door sealing, avionic cooling, and smoke detection.
ECS is sized to meet the aircraft mission. It is the highest power-consuming system on the aircraft.

The basic designs of the ECS used on most aircraft, in both corporate jets and commercial airliners, are remarkably similar. In simplified terms, air is first compressed to high pressure and temperature in the engine compressors, cooled in a precooler before entering the fuselage then conditioned by an air cycle machine (ACM) where excess moisture is removed and the temperature necessary for heating or cooling the airplane is established. The conditioned air is then delivered to the cabin and cockpit through the duct distribution system to maintain a comfortable environment.

To optimize the system from the weight point of view, a complete analysis of each component must be considered and evaluated. The weight of the ECS is driven by the bleed air pressure and temperature which determines the size of the precooler (Reference SAWE Paper # 3648; Engine Integration to Aircraft of Corporate Jets).The thermal heating and cooling load will determine the extracted bleed airflow quantity, which in turn, will impact the ACM size and weight.

Most of the ECS components are designed and provided by suppliers but the air distribution ducts are laid out by the airframers and that deserves more attention. The adverse effect of paying little attention to duct optimization is a weight penalty and cost increase. The ducts’ layout, size, and shape can lead to increased cabin’s noise which is usually treated by additional sound attenuation materials on the account of weight, cost, and maintainability. The duct noise can also lead to other problems such as vibration and passenger’s discomfort.
This paper will focus on addressing the air distribution duct design and layout as related to weight optimization.

Key Words10. Weight Engineering - Aircraft Design, 24. Weight Engineering - System Design
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